In December 2020, Congress gave the National Institutes of Health $1.2 billion to study Long COVID. That money was used to fund the RECOVER initiative, billed as a thorough study of this condition and an effort to help patients actually recover from the often-debilitating long-term effects of COVID-19.
But it’s been more than two years, and the RECOVER initiative doesn’t have much to show for that money—besides a growing number of frustrated people in the Long COVID community. Clinical trials haven’t started yet, very limited research findings have been published, and some long-haulers involved with the initiative are losing faith in its ability to find answers.
I collaborated with Rachel Cohrs, a reporter at STAT News, on a thorough investigation into RECOVER’s problems. We combed through documents and data, talked to a number of people involved with the initiative, and researched the broader context around RECOVER.
As I wrote on Twitter, I want to keep reporting on RECOVER, as I know there are other problems with the initiative that weren’t captured in this story. If anyone reading this has additional information to share, please shoot me an email or reach out on social media. (You can also reach out to ask for my number on Signal, a secure messaging platform.)
Here’s the story’s introduction, to give you an idea of what we found:
The federal government has burned through more than $1 billion to study long Covid, an effort to help the millions of Americans who experience brain fog, fatigue, and other symptoms after recovering from a coronavirus infection.
There’s basically nothing to show for it.
The National Institutes of Health hasn’t signed up a single patient to test any potential treatments — despite a clear mandate from Congress to study them. And the few trials it is planning have already drawn a firestorm of criticism, especially one intervention that experts and advocates say may actually make some patients’ long Covid symptoms worse.
Instead, the NIH spent the majority of its money on broader, observational research that won’t directly bring relief to patients. But it still hasn’t published any findings from the patients who joined that study, almost two years after it started.
There’s no sense of urgency to do more or to speed things up, either. The agency isn’t asking Congress for any more funding for long Covid research, and STAT and MuckRock obtained documents showing the NIH refuses to use its own money to change course.
“So far, I don’t think we’ve gotten anything for a billion dollars,” said Ezekiel Emanuel, a physician, vice provost for global initiatives, and co-director of the Healthcare Transformation Institute at the University of Pennsylvania. “That is just unacceptable, and it’s a serious dysfunction.”
Eric Topol, the founder and director of the Scripps Research Translational Institute, said he expected the NIH would have launched many large-scale trials by now, and that testing treatments should have been an urgent priority when Congress first gave the agency money in late 2020.
“I don’t know that they’ve contributed anything except more confusion,” Topol said.
Patients and researchers have already raised alarms about the glacial pace of the NIH’s early long Covid efforts. But a new investigation from STAT and the nonprofit news organization MuckRock, based on interviews with nearly two dozen government officials, experts, patients, and advocates, and internal NIH correspondence, letters, and public documents, underscores that the NIH hasn’t picked up the pace — instead, the delays have compounded.
It’s difficult to pinpoint exactly why progress is so stalled, experts and patients involved in the project emphasized, because the NIH has obscured both who is in charge of the long Covid efforts and how it spent the money. The broader Biden administration has also missed opportunities for oversight and accountability of the effort — despite the president’s lofty promises to focus on the disease.
The NIH’s blunders have massive ramifications for the more than 16 million Americans suffering from long Covid, in addition to those with other, similar chronic diseases. As the biggest government-funded study on this topic, the NIH initiative, dubbed RECOVER, sets precedents for future research and clinical guidelines. It will dictate how doctors across the country treat their patients — and, in turn, impact people’s ability to access work accommodations, disability benefits, and more.
“The NIH RECOVER study is pointless,” said Jenn Cole, a long Covid patient based in Brooklyn, N.Y., who wanted to enroll in the study but found the process inaccessible. The research is “a waste of time and resources,” she said, and fails to use patients’ tax dollars for their benefit.
In response to STAT and MuckRock’s questions, the NIH and an institute at Duke University managing the clinical trials defended the initiative, without providing a clear explanation for the delays.
The NIH said it chose to fund a large-scale research program instead of small-scale studies to make sure data and processes could be shared across different groups of patients, adding that clinical trials will be launching soon. In these trials, standardized study designs will allow the agency to test multiple treatments across multiple sites. If there are signals a drug works, the agency said it can pivot to devote more resources there.
A Department of Health and Human Services spokesperson said the agency has made progress over the last year in responding to long Covid, and that there are research efforts underway in addition to the RECOVER program.
“The Administration remains committed to addressing the longer-term impacts of the worst public health crisis in a century,” HHS said.