A couple of hours after I send today’s newsletter, I will do my final shift of data entry work on the COVID Tracking Project’s Testing and Outcomes dataset. Then, later in the evening, I will do my final shift on the COVID Racial Data Tracker. And then I will probably spend another hour or two bothering my fellow volunteers on Slack because I don’t want it to be over quite yet.
In case you aren’t fully embroiled in the COVID-19 data world, here’s some context. Last spring, a few journalists and other data-watchers realized that the U.S.’s national public health agencies weren’t doing a very good job of reporting COVID-19 tests. Alexis Madrigal and Rob Meyer (of The Atlantic) compiled their own count from state public health agencies. Jeff Hammerbacher (of Related Sciences) had independently compiled his own count, also from state agencies. And, as the About page on the website goes: “The two efforts came together March 7 and made a call for volunteers, our managing editor, Erin Kissane joined up, and the COVID Tracking Project was born.”
Now, one year after that formal beginning of the Project’s test-counting efforts, the team is ending data collection work. Erin Kissane and Alexis Madrigal provided some background for that decision in a blog published on February 1. I recommend reading the piece in full, if you haven’t yet, but the TL;DR is that a. this data collection work should be done by federal public health agencies, not a motley group of researchers and volunteers, and b. the federal agencies have greatly improved their own data collection and reporting efforts in recent months.
The Project’s core Testing and Outcomes dataset formally ceases updates today, along with the Racial Data Tracker and Long-Term Care Data Tracker. But the Project has provided a lot of documentation and guidance for data users who want to keep tracking the pandemic, along with analysis that will be useful for months (if not years) to come. The rest of this post shares the highlights from those resources, along with a few personal reflections.
Where to find your COVID-19 data now
So, you’re a journalist who’s relied on the COVID Tracking Project’s tweets to illuminate pandemic trends for the past year. Or you’re a researcher who’s linked the Project’s API to your own tracking dashboard. Or you’re a concerned reader who’s checked up on your state regularly, watching the time series charts and annotations. Where do you go for your data now?
Through a series of analysis posts and webinars over the past few weeks, Project staff have made their recommendation clear: go to the federal government. In recent months, the CDC and the HHS have built up data collection practices and public dashboards that make these data easier to work with.
Here are a few highlights:
- For daily updates at all geographic levels, use the Community Profile Reports. After months of private updates sent from the White House COVID-19 task force to governors, the data behind these in-depth reports were made public in December. The PDF reports themselves were made public in January, after Biden took office. The reports include detailed data on cases, deaths, tests, and hospitalizations for states, counties, and metropolitan areas. I’ve written more about the reports here.
- For weekly updates, use the COVID Data Tracker Weekly Review. As I mentioned in a National Numbers post two weeks ago: the CDC is doing weekly updates now! These updates include reports on the national trends for cases, deaths, hospitalizations, vaccinations, and SARS-CoV-2 variants. They may be drier than CTP blog posts, but they’re full of data. You can also sign up to receive the updates as a newsletter, sent every Friday afternoon—the CDC has really moved into the 21st-century media landscape.
- For state-specific updates, use the State Profile Reports. Similarly to the Community Profile Reports, these documents provide many major state-level metrics in one place, along with local data and color-coding to show areas of concern. They’re released weekly, and can be downloaded either state-by-state or in one massive federal doc.
- For case and deaths data, use the CDC’s state-by-state dataset. This dataset compiles figures reported by states, territories, and other jurisdictions. It matches up pretty closely to CTP’s data, though there are some differences due to definitions that don’t match and other discrepancies; here’s an analysis post on cases, and here’s a post on deaths. You can also see these data in the CDC’s COVID Data Tracker and reports.
- For testing data, use the HHS PCR testing time series. This dataset includes results of PCR tests from over 1,000 labs, hospitals, and other testing locations. Unlike CTP, the federal government can mandate how states report their tests, so this dataset is standardized in a way that the Project’s couldn’t be. Kara Schechtman has written more about where federal testing data come from and how to use them here. The HHS isn’t (yet) publishing comprehensive data on antibody or antigen tests, as these test types are even more difficult to standardize.
- For hospitalization data, use the HHS hospitalization dataset. I’ve reported extensively on this dataset, as has CTP. After a rocky start in the summer, the HHS has shown that it can compile a lot of data points from a lot of hospitals, get them standardized, and make them public. HHS data for current hospitalizations are “usually within a few percentage points” of corresponding data reported by states themselves, says a recent CTP post on the subject. Find the state-level time series here and the facility-level dataset here.
- For long-term care data, use the CMS nursing home dataset. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services are responsible for overseeing all federally-funded nursing homes. Since last spring, this responsibility has included tracking COVID-19 in those nursing homes—including cases and deaths among residents and staff, along with equipment, testing availability, and other information. The CMS dataset accounts for fewer overall cases than CTP’s long-term care dataset because nursing homes only account for one type of long-term care facility. But, like any federal dataset, it’s more standardized and more detailed. Here’s an analysis post with more info.
- For race and ethnicity data, there are a couple of options. The CDC’s COVID Data Tracker includes national figures on total cases and deaths by race and ethnicity—at least, for the 52% of cases and 74% of cases where demographic information is available. More detailed information (such as state-by-state data) is available on deaths by race and ethnicity via the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. A blog post with more information on substitutes for the COVID Racial Data Tracker is forthcoming.
The COVID Tracking Project’s federal data webinars concluded this past Thursday with a session on race and ethnicity and long-term care facilities. Slides and recordings from these sessions haven’t been publicly posted yet, but you can look out for them on the Project’s website.
Also, for the more technical data nerds among you: COVID Act Now has written up a Covid Tracking Migration Guide for users of the CTP API, and the Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center announced that it will begin providing state testing data.
Analysis and update posts to re-read
It took a lot of self control for me to not just link every single CTP article in here. But I’ll give you just a few of my favorites, listed in no particular order.
- Test Positivity in the US Is a Mess (Oct. 8): This piece was one of my “20 best COVID-19 data stories of 2020.” To repeat what I wrote then: “Out of the many informative blog posts produced by the COVID Tracking Project since last spring, this is the one I’ve shared most widely. Project Lead Erin Kissane and Science Communication Lead Jessica Malaty Rivera clearly explain how COVID-19 test positivity—what should be a simple metric, the share of tests conducted in a given region that return a positive result—can be calculated in several different ways.”
- Daily COVID-19 Data Is About to Get Weird (Nov. 24): I probably linked to this piece in newsletters once a week from the end of November until early January. Erin Kissane clearly explains the patterns around holiday data and how to interpret them—an explanation that continues to prove useful, as we saw a kind-of holiday reporting pattern take place after winter storms hit the South.
- State-Level Vaccine Demographic Data is Messy and Incomplete—We Need Federal Data, Now (Jan. 15): While CTP did not compile state data on vaccinations, the Project has kept an eye on how states are reporting these crucial new data, with a focus on race and ethnicity. This post shares a set of annotations about race and ethnicity vaccination reporting and calls attention to how messy that reporting is so far. There have been some improvements since this was published, but… we still need better federal data.
- The “Good” Metric Is Pretty Bad: Why It’s Hard to Count the People Who Have Recovered from COVID-19 (Jan. 13): The “recovered” number that many states publish is even more inconsistent than other metrics. Some states use hospital discharges to calculate this number, while others simply re-categorize cases as “recovered” if a worse outcome hasn’t occurred in a designated timeframe. All definitions exclude long haulers, who face symptoms months after getting sick.
- Counting COVID-19 Tests: How States Do It, How We Do It, and What’s Changing (Aug. 13): You know how the federal testing dataset is more standardized than what CTP can do? This is because there are three (3!) different units for COVID-19 test reporting, and every state does something slightly different. Kara Schechtman gets into all of the weeds here.
- What We’ve Learned About the HHS’s Hospitalization Data (Dec. 4): I love this post because it says, in no uncertain terms, look, we did all this analysis, and we’re telling you, you can trust the HHS hospitalization data now. It’s an early indication of CTP recognizing increased transparency from the federal agency, weeks before the facility-level dataset would be released.
- Florida’s COVID-19 Data: What We Know, What’s Wrong, and What’s Missing (July 8): This one is essentially a feature-length, detailed, clearly written callout post for the state of Florida. Many of the issues described in this post have now been resolved, but one of the most important developments occurred just days after it was published: Florida started publishing a count of current COVID-19 patients.
- The State of State Antigen Test Reporting (Oct. 19): I co-wrote this one with Quang Nguyen. The post explains what we know about antigen tests, those useful-for-surveillance-but-pesky-for-data rapid tests, and calls attention to potential underreporting.
- Releasing our Annotations on COVID-19 State Data Definitions (March 5): Okay, this one is just me telling you to go look at CTP’s state data annotations. If this isn’t the most extensive Airtable ever published, then I don’t know what is.
What the COVID Tracking Project gave me
I joined the COVID Tracking Project as a volunteer in early April, 2020. I actually searched back through my calendar to find exactly when I did a data entry training—it was Thursday, April 2.
At the time, I wanted to better understand the numbers I kept seeing, in tweets and news stories and Cuomo’s powerpoints. But more than that, I wanted to do something. I sat, cooped up in my little Brooklyn apartment, listening to the endless sirens screaming by. I ran to the park and wanted to yell at every person I saw walking without a mask. I donated to mutual aid funds, but even that felt empty, almost impersonal.
The Project put out a call for volunteers, and I thought, okay, data entry. I can do data entry. I can do spreadsheets. I know spreadsheets.
Well, I know spreadsheets much better now, almost a year later. I know how to navigate through a state dashboard, find all its data definitions, and puzzle through its update time. But beyond all the technical stuff, volunteering for CTP gave me a sense of purpose and community. No matter how tired or angry the world made me feel, I knew that, for a few hours a week, I’d be contributing to something bigger than myself. My work played a small part in making data accessible, bringing information to a wider audience.
Much ink has been spilled about how mutual aid groups have helped neighbors find each other, especially during that period of spring 2020 when everything seemed so bleak. I have seen the Project as another form of mutual aid. I’ve given countless hours to CTP over the past year in the form of data entry shifts, analysis, writing, and custom emojis—but those hours have also been given back to me, in everything from Tableau tricks to playlist recommendations. My fellow volunteers, the vast majority of whom I’ve never met in person, are my neighbors. We live in the same spreadsheets and Slack channels; we see the world in the same way.
I am beginning to understand how journalism, or something like journalism, can work when it is led by a community. By community, I mean: a group of people united in one mission. And by mission, I mean: bringing information to the public. Accessibility and accountability are common buzzwords right now, I think, but CTP approaches the truth of these principles, whether it’s by doing shifts through Christmas or by writing out detailed process notes on how to navigate Wyoming’s dashboard(s).
I know why the Project’s data collection efforts are ending. The federal government can compile—and is compiling—data on a far more detailed and standardized level than a group of researchers and volunteers ever could. But I am grateful to have been part of this beautiful thing, so much bigger than myself. It is the bar by which I will measure every organization I join from here on out.
If you’ve ever read the About page on the COVID-19 Data Dispatch website, you may have noticed a disclaimer stating that, while I volunteer for CTP, this publication is an entirely separate project that reflects my own reporting and explanations. This is true; I’m careful to keep this project distinct. But of course, the COVID-19 Data Dispatch has been influenced by what I’ve learned volunteering for CTP. I have attempted to carry forward those values, accessibility and accountability. I’ll keep carrying them forward. Feedback is always welcome.
To all my neighbors in the CTP Slack: thank you. And to everyone who has followed the data: there is work still to be done.
More federal data posts
- Biden’s new COVID-19 plan excludes dataOn Thursday, President Joe Biden unveiled a major new plan to bring the U.S. out of the pandemic. One major topic is missing: data collecti
- U.S. moves to approve booster shots despite minimal evidenceThis week, the federal government announced that the U.S. intends to provide third vaccine doses to all Americans who received the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines. This booster shot distribution will start in September, with adults becoming eligible once they hit eight months after their second shot. Many epidemiologists, vaccine experts, global health experts, and other scientists have criticized the decision.
- Three more COVID-19 data points, August 15A couple of additional items from this week’s COVID-19 headlines: children hospitalized with COVID-19, immunocompromised Americans now eligible for a third dose, and low cases linked to Lollapalooza.
- Yes, we still need better data on COVID-19 and race: An interview with Dr. Debra Furr-HoldenDr. Debra Furr-Holden, public health expert at Michigan State University, discusses the ongoing challenges of collecting and reporting COVID-19 race data, how data gaps fuel vaccine hesitancy, the equity challenges inherent in vaccine mandates, and more.